Gemstones A-Z

There are literally hundreds of gemstones and minerals on our planet. Many of those, typically stones that have a higher hardness rating on Moh’s Scale, are used in jewelry. After looking at thousands and thousands of pieces, we’ve put together a list of the gemstones and minerals found in today’s jewelry. 

Remember that harder gems are less likely to sustain damage when worn. Opals are low on this list and therefore require special care, whereas sapphires and rubies are just below diamonds in hardness and can withstand the rigors of daily wear, such as in a ring setting. If we’ve missed a stone, click here to let us know. We’ll happily add it!  For more information on gemstones, go to our Gemstone Resources page.

Gemstone Hardness (Min) Hardness (Max) Type Colors
Achorite 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Colorless
Actinolite / Cat’s Eye 5.0 6.0 Chrysoberyl Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Multicolored
Agate 7.0 7.0 Quartz White, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Banded, Multicolored
Alexandrite 8.5 8.5 Chrysoberyl Blue, Red, Green, Pink, Purple, Multicolored (changes color)
Almandine 6.5 7.5 Garnet Red, Redish-Purple, Redish-Orange
Almandine Spinel 8.0 8.0 Spinel Violet, Blue-Violet
Amazonite 6.0 6.5 Feldspar Blue, Green, Purple
Amethyst 7.0 7.0 Quartz Pale Lavender to Dark Purple
Ametrine 7.0 7.0 Quartz Yellow and Purple (in the same stone)
Amolite 3.5 4.0   Rainbow
Andalusite 7.0 7.5 Andalusite Green, Yellow, Red, Brown, Multicolored 
Andesine 6.0 6.5 Feldspar Red, Red-Orange, Greenish-Red
Andesine Labradorite 7.5 8.0 Beryl Pink, Yellow, Red, Orange, Red/Green, Green
Andradite 6.5 7.5 Garnet Yellow, Green, Brown
Andusalite 7.0 7.5 Andalusite White, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Gray, Black, Multicolored
Aquamarine 7.5 8.0 Beryl Light Blue, Blue, Blue-Green
Aventurine 6.5 7.0 Quartz Pale Green, Blue-Green, Dark Green
Azurite / Blue Malachite 3.5 4.0 Copper Carbonate Royal Blue
Azurmalachite  3.5 4.0 Copper Carbonate Blue & Green (mix of Azurite and Malachite
Balas Ruby 8.0 8.0 Spinel Red
Baltic Amber 2.0 2.5 Non-Mineral
(Organic)
Yellow, Red, Green, Brown, Orange
Benitoite 6.0 6.5 Benitoite Dark Blue
Black Onxy 7.0 7.0 Chalcedony Opaque Black
Black Opal 5.5 6.5 Opal Black & Multicolored
Bloodstone / Heliotrope 7.0 7.0 Quartz Dark Green to Blueish Green with Red or Brown Spots
Brazilian Emerald 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Dark Green
Cairngorm / Smokey Quartz 7.0 7.0 Quartz Gray, Brown
Carnelian 7.0 7.0 Quartz Red, Orange
Cat’s Eye / Actinolite 5.0 6.0 Chrysoberyl Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Multicolored
Chalcedony 7.0 7.0 Quartz Transulcent White, Gray, Blue
Chiastolite / Cross Stone 7.0 7..5 Andalusite Brown & Black
Chlorspinel 8.0 8.0 Spinel Bright Green
Chrome Diopside 5.0 6.0 Diopside Green
Chrome Pyrope 6.5 7.5 Garnet Red
Chrysoberyl 8.5 8.5 Chrysoberyl Yellow, Brown, Green, Orange
Chrysocolla 2.0 4.0 Chrysocolla Green, blue, bluish-green, blackish-blue, brown, multicolor
Chrysoprase / Stone of Venus 7.0 7.0 Quartz Bright Green
Citrine 7.0 7.0 Quartz Yellow, Orange-Yellow, Yellow-Brown
Color-Change Garnet 6.5 7.5 Garnet Pink, Green, Yellow, Red, Blue
Coral 3.0 4.0 Non-Mineral
(Organic)
Pink, Red, Black, White, Blue
Danburite 7.0 7.0 Danburite Colorless, Pale Yellow, Pale Brown
Demantoid 6.5 7.5 Garnet Medium to Yellowish Green
Diamond 10.0 10.0 Diamond Clear, White, Yellow, Blue, Green, Red, Brown, Black
Diaspore   6.5 7.0 Diaspore   Color-Change; Green, Yellow, Pink
Dravite / Brown Tourmaline 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Brown
Dumortierite 7.0 7.0 Dumortierite Blue, Blue-Purple
Emerald 7.5 8.0 Beryl Pale Green to Deep Green
Fire Opal 5.5 6.5 Opal Rainbow
Ghanospinel 8.0 8.0 Spinel Green, blue, bluish-green, blackish-blue, brown, multicolor
Golden Beryl 7.5 8.0 Beryl Yellow
Goldstone 6.5 7.0 Glass Dark Colors with Copper Flecks
Goshenite 7.5 8.0 Beryl Colorless
Green Quartz 7.0 7.0 Quartz Green
Heliodor 7.5 8.0 Beryl Yellow
Heliotrope / Bloodstone 7.0 7.0 Quartz Green and Red
Hessonite 6.5 7.5 Garnet Yellow to Yellowish-Brown
Hiddenite 6.5 7.0 Spodumene Pale Green
Hyacinth 7.5 7.5 Zircon Red
Indicolite 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Blue
Iolite 7.0 7.5 Cordierite Blue, Purple or Gray
Jade 6.0 6.0 Jade White, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Banded, Multicolored
Jadeite 6.0 6.0 Jade White, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Banded, Multicolored
Jargon 7.5 7.5 Zircon Colorless, pale gray, or pale yellow
Jasper 7.0 7.0 Quartz White, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Gray, Black, Banded, Multicolored
Kunzite 6.5 7.0 Spodumene white with green inclusions
Labradorite 6.0 6.5 Feldspar White, gray, light blue, light green, pale orange-red, black, 
Lapis Lazuli 5.0 5.5 Lapis Lazuli Blue, Multicolored
Malachite 3.5 4.0 Copper Carbonate Green
Malaia 6.5 7.5 Garnet Reddish-orange
Matura Diamond 7.5 7.5 Zircon Colorless
Melanite Garnet / Titanian Andradite 6.5 7.0 Garnet Black,  Very Dark Red
Moldavite 5.0 5.0 Impactites Green, Yellow-Green
Mookaite 7.0 7.0 Jasper Multi-color
Moonstone 6.0 6.5 Feldspar White with Blue-Green adularescence 
Morganite / Pink Beryl 7.5 8.0 Beryl Pink
Morion 7.0 7.0 Quartz Opaque Black
Moss Agate 6.5 7.0 Agate white with green inclusions
Mother of Pearl     Shell iridescent
Nephrite 6.0 6.0 Jade White, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Banded, Multicolore
Onyx 7.0 7.0 Quartz Black w/White Lines, Red w/White Lines
Orthoclase 6.0 6.5 Feldspar White, yellow, colorless, pink, orange, light blue, light green, brown, gray
Peridot 7.0 7.0 Peridot Green
Peristerite 6.0 6.5 Feldspar Iridesccent White
Pink Beryl/Morganite 7.5 8.0 Beryl Pink to Purplish Pink
Praziolite/Green Amethyst 7.0 7.0 Quartz Light Green
Pyrope / Ant Hill Garnet 6.5 7.5 Garnet Dark Red to Purple-Red
Red Beryl 7.5 8.0 Beryl Red
Rhodolite 6.5 7.5 Garnet Shandes from Pink to Red to Redish-Lavender
Rock Crystal 7.0 7.0 Quartz Blue (artificially irraddiated)
Rose Quartz 7.0 7.0 Quartz Light Pink
Rubellite 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Clear Light Pink
Rubicelle 8.0 8.0 Spinel Yellow to Orange
Ruby 9.0 9.0 Corundum Pink  to Red
Sapphire 9.0 9.0 Corundum White, Colorless, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Multicolored
Sapphire Spinel 8.0 8.0 Spinel Blue
Siberite 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Purple
Smokey Quartz / Cairngorm 7.0 7.0 Quartz Gray, Brown
Smoky Quartz 7.0 7.0 Quartz Brown, Black
Spessartine 6.5 7.5 Garnet Medium Orange to Redish-Orange
Spinel 8.0 8.0 Spinel White, Colorless, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Black
Star Diopside 5.0 6.0 Diopside Very Dark Green to Black
Sunstone 6.0 6.5 Feldspar Red, Orange, Brown, Pink
Tanzanite 6.5 6.5 Zoisite Blue-Violet, Purple, Gray-Blue
Thulite 3.2 3.4 Zoisite Pink
Topaz 8.0 8.0 Topaz White, Colorless, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Multicolored
Topazolite 6.5 7.5 Garnet Brown, Yellow-Brown, Yellow-Green
Tourmaline 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Blue
Tsavorite 6.5 7.5 Garnet Medium Green to Yellowish-Green
Turquoise 5.0 6.0 Turquoise Blue-Green to Green-Blue
Uvarovite 6.5 7.5 Garnet Bright Green
Verdilite 7.0 7.5 Tourmaline Green
Water Opal 5.5 6.5 Opal Colorless, White, Yellow, Orange, Red, Purple, Blue, Green, Gray, Brown, and Black
White Opal 5.5 6.5 Opal White with muti-color fire
Zircon 7.5 7.5 Zircon Colorless